Welcome to Online Health Expert, Your Number One Free Reputable Online Source of Links to Improve your Medical Knowledge and Clinical Skills. Prepare for USMLE Step1, Step2CK and CS, Step3, NCLEX, MCAT, TEAS and Tutor in All PreMed, Medical School, PreNursing and Nursing School Subjects Via Online Health Expert's Elite Tutoring Service (One-on-One and Online - Schedule Your 10 min Free Phone Call Today). Join and Become Part of Dr. Harish Malik's Research Based Global and Free "Move Movement".
Online Health ExpertDr.Harish Malikwho has trained
several thousand successful health care professionals including many doctors
and nurses in theDC/MD/VA(DMV)and Baltimore Region via his Elite Tutoring Service[a one of its kind Novel One-on-One Focused and
Individualized, Diagnostic and Remedial (FIDR) Tutoring Service available in over 50 subjects]
believes that the best way to understand, explain and create research postulates
and hypotheses in the field of medicine is to use the real life analogies (RLA) approach.
Dr. Harish Malik
also uses his RLA approach to teach his students, generate patient teaching
strategies, and breakdown difficult to comprehend medical concepts, diseases
processes, diagnostic and treatment modalities for them in a simple to
understand language to help them in
making the optimal evidence based decisions to help them succeed or to
prevent/fight disease, as the case may be.
Real Life Analogy (RLA) approach
To explain Immune System to a Student/Patient: Inflammation is defined as nonspecific (innate) localized tissue response to injury (Mnemonic for
causes of injury is VINDICATE ME –
please read my earlier post “What is our immune system and how does it work?”)It is classified as acute,
sub-acute or chronic based on the
severity and onset. The type of cells and mediators involved are different
just like the Real Life Analogy (RLA) scenario where different forces are
deployed by us for the repair process and containment of damage with different
types of conflicts (pathogens) or damages (non-infectious causes) done to our
world, whether these involve one person, a family, community, city, county,
state or a nation. For example the
Marines (Analogous to IgM– a pentamer
Immunoglobulin and Neutrophils –
phagocytic cell- seen in Acute
Inflammation) usually go in right after the intelligence is gathered using drones or secret service agents (Cell
Mediators and signaling involving T-Helper (CD4) cells) and presented (APCs – Antigen Presenting Cells
like the Microglial cells in Brain,
Dendritic cells in Skin, Kupffer
cells in Liver, Mesangial cells in
Kidneys) to make the situation on
the ground conducive for the Ground
forces (IgG – a monomer Immunoglobulin and Lymphocytes, Macrophages and Giant cells – which are syncytial macrophages
seen in Chronic Inflammation trying to contain the pathogens) to take over
and maintain a neutralizing force until the situation is returned very close to
normal. A memory of the injury/conflict
is kept in the form of T and B memory cells for future rapid response to a
similar situation……..excerpts taken from Online Health Expert Dr. Harish Malik's story of Lymphatic and the Immune System.
Thank you for updating your medical knowledge at Online Health Expert. Sincerely, Dr. Harish Malik
The ABCDEFG approach to Managing a patient
with Heart Disease:
Cardiovascular Risk – modifiable and non-modifiable Risk factors and ACLS H and
Ts – History and Physical Exam; Arterial Blood Gases (ABGs); Air (O2); Anti-Platelet agents – Aspirin – to be chewed to bypass First Pass Metabolism by liver and
instantaneous action within seconds –
shown to decrease mortality, Plavix (Clopidogrel); ACE inhibitors – prils (oral) –prilat (IV) – shown to decrease mortality and promote ventricular wall remodeling;
ARBs (-sartans); Anticoagulants –
Start with LMWH (Enoxaparin action is monitored with aPTT and action is
reversed with Protamine Sulfate) and Warfarin then discontinue Enoxaparin after
5-7 days – monitor PT/INR reverse with Vitamin K or Pradaxa (dabigatran
etexilate – no monitoring needed)for
AF to prevent Stroke, Analgesics for pain – narcotics; Anti-arrhythmics – (Class 1,2,3,4 – So,Be,Po, Ca – MOA – Sodium
channel, Beta blockers, Potassium channel, Calcium channel blockers
respectively) ACLS 2010 removed ATROPINE from management of Asystole/PEA, Antibiotics
for IE (Infective Endocarditis – most commonly Left sided due to high
pressure - suspect IV drug abuse in Right Sided IE – tricuspid – involvement due
to S. aureus send cultures before
starting Broad spectrum Antibiotics – may be culture positive or negative); Alteplase (Thrombolytic usebeneficial within 6 hours of start of symptoms); Angiographyor cardiac
catheterization with or without Balloon Angioplasty
and Stenting (drug eluded).
Beta-Blockers – Beta-1
selective bisoprolol (Zebeta), carvedilol (Coreg), metoprolol (Lopressor) –
have been shown to reduce mortality; elevate the leg end of the Bed after a MI; Blood Culture and Serology and enzymes– before starting Antibiotics for IE and
to find the cause of cardiomyopathy.
Blockers (CCBs) – -dipines, diltiazem and verapamil - amlodipine (Norvasc),
diltiazem (Cardizem), felodipine, nifedipine (Procardia), nisoldipine (Sular),
verapamil (Calan)are used fordiastolic
heart failure(when your heart has a hard time filling with blood) and to
lower Blood Pressure. NOT used for
Systolic Heart Failure (inability of the week ventricles to pump out blood); Chest X-Ray(CXR) to detect pulmonary
cause (Cor-Pulmonale – Right sided Heart Failure secondary to lung disease),
Trauma – mediastinal widening, congenital heart disease – Boot shaped heart in
TOF, Egg on a string appearance in TGA, Cardiomegaly (Cardio Thoracic ratio
> 50% on a CXR PA view); Cardiac
Enzymes – GPBB (Glycogen Phosphorylase isoenzyme BB – elevated 1-3 hours
after ischemia and peak in 7 hours),
Troponin T and I (released within 2-4 hours after ischemia, peak in 12
hours and persist up to 7 days), Creatine
Kinase – MB (CK-MB is relatively specific without skeletal muscle damage
and levels peak in 10-24 hours and persists for 2-3 days; Coronary Artery Bypass Graftingusing Internal Mammary Artery
Graft, Radial Artery or Saphenous veins
(CABG types – traditional CABGusing heart-lung bypass machine, CABG done on a beating heart - Off-pump CABG, and the newer Minimally
Invasive Direct CAB (MIDCAB)surgery performed without cutting ribs or
sternum; Cholesterol-Lowering drugs – Statins
are FIRST LINE therapy(also known as HMG CoA reductase inhibitors – major side effects include myopathy
including Rhabdomyolysis and Hepatotoxicity – elevated liver enzymes andlatest addition is early CATARACTS) – mainly lower LDL (BAD) cholesterol,
also modestly lower Triglycerides (TGs) and raise HDL (GOOD) cholesterol – atorvastatin
(Lipitor), Simvastatin (Zocor),
Selective Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors – ezetimibe (Zetia), Other
therapies for dyslipidemias include Resins also called Bile acid
Sequestrant or Bile acid binding Drugs, Fibrates (Fibric acid derivatives), and Niacin (Nicotinic Acid); Cardiac Monitorin the ER – Telemetry Floor, 24 hour Holter monitoring or
event monitoring at home; Cardiac
Tamponade – diagnose clinically or using EKG and Echocardiogram or Chest CT/MRI–
perform ultrasound or CT guided Pericardiocentesis or Surgical pericardiectomy
(pericardial window); Cardiomyopathy – 5 types include Dilated cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,
Restrictive cardiomyopathy, Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD),
and Unclassified type – find cause and treat accordingly;
DEF and G to be continued….Please check back
for updating your Medical Knowledge at Online Health Expert.
In an effort to Improve Clinical Knowledge and Skills of Everyone in the Healthcare, and make Healthcare delivery safer and cheaper Online Health Expert Dr. Harish Malik launches "Elite Tutoring Service".
Elite Tutoring Service is now available locally to anyone in Washington DC and Baltimore Metropolitan Regions and globally to everyone via Skype and is provided personally by Dr. Harish Malik.
The primary goal of Elite Tutoring Service is to enhance Quality Intake of Doctors and Nurses through MCAT, TEAS V tutoring and tutoring in All PreMedical, PreNursing Subjects; Improve Medical, Nursing and PA School Experience and Understanding by providing tutoring in All Medical, PA and Nursing School Subjects; and Improve Board Pass rates by providing tutoring for USMLE Step1, Step 2CK and CS, Step 3, PANCE, NCLEX-RN, NCLEX-PN.
For a limited time Please schedule your No obligation Free First Hour of tutoring by contacting Dr. Harish Malik today!
For more detailed information about Elite Tutoring Service including pricing, a list of all Subjects Available,Special Offers like Discount pricing for Online Health Expert members and Contact information please click on the direct link provided below:
The Creation of First Synthetic Life form is a Life Changing Step that has Re-Defined "LIFE": Dynamic Software (DNA and RNA) driven Organic Machines (Life forms like you and me).
New Software (Computer Designed and Synthetically made DNA) + Organic Raw Material = "New Life form"
Synthetic life became a reality last year (2010) when a team of 40 researchers led by Dr. J. Craig Venter, a geneticist and scientist at his not for profit research institute located in Rockville, Maryland were able to create a synthetic cell whose 1.08 million base pair Mycoplasma mycoides genome was digitalized and modified on a computer and the base pairs were put together in the laboratory. This is the First Self-Replicating Synthetic Bacterial Cell with numerous applications.
Online Health Expert Longevity News Flash: Off-springs of Mothers less than 25 years and Not being Stout at age 30 years Found to be Associated with Extreme Longevity.
In an interesting study that appeared in the Journal Biodemography and Social Biology done at a center for aging, NORC at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA, researchers Gavrilov LA and Gavrilova NS explored the effects of early-life and mid-life conditions on exceptional longevity using two matched case control studies.
Results of their First study showed that Siblings born to young mothers (aged less than 25 years) had significantly higher chances of living to 100 compared to siblings born to older mothers (OR = 2.03).Also noteworthy was that the Birth order and Paternal age were not associated with exceptional longevity.
Results of their Second study showed, among men at age 30 years, a Negative association between "stout" body build (being in the heaviest 15% of the population) and survival to age 100. Being a "farmer" and a father of 4 or more children by age 30 years was also associated with exceptional longevity. Also noteworthy was the fact that centenarians were not concentrated among the tallest men at age 30. In fact most of them were medium height, although these height differences were not statistically significant.
This is great news for children of today's young mothers and normal weight men coming from this landmark Biodemograpic study exploring early and mid-life predictors of exceptional Longevity.
Paternal Age and Birth order was not found to be a factor for exceptional longevity!
Online Health Expert's Human Longevity Genetic Research News Flash: Italian Researchers Found Variations in Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor (AGTR1) Gene to be Associated with Extreme Longevity in Humans.
Researchers Benigni, A et al. from the Department of Molecular Medicine, Mario Negri Institute of Pharmacological Research, Bergamo, Italy found an interesting, significant and strong association between AGTR1 Gene and Extreme Longevity in a large independent cohort of Italian and Japanese Centenarians.
This gene varient was also associated with lower Blood Pressure among the Centenarians.
A Cross-sectional Cohort Study (Longevity Genes Project at Albert Einstein College of Medicine) examined the levels of Serum Uric Acid (UA), estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR), prevalence of Hyperuricemia and Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Stages among Long Living Individuals (LLI ) of Ashkenazi Jewish descent (mean age 97.7 years) and their offsprings (mean age 68.2 years) and compared those with controls (No Family History of Longevity, mean age 72.5 years).
The study found that Offspring of LLI had lower Uric Acid (UA) levels than Controls (No Family History of Longevity) despite similar Renal Funtion suggesting that lower UA levels are associated with Longevity. It is an important association as the Serum Uric Acid levels are modifiable with Diet and Drugs.
Top Medical News section of Online Health Expert Cancer News Flash: Feb. 29, 2012 ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters - In a National Cancer Institute funded research, scientists have developed and tested a Novel Hybrid "NOSH Aspirin" (Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Sulfide releasing Aspirin) to be highly effective in inhibiting the growth of Breast, Colon, Pancreas, Lung, Prostate, and some Leukemia cells in experiments.
Nitric Oxide helps dilate the blood vessels and prevents the GI bleeding side effects of regular Aspirin and the Hydrogen Sulfide is a potent anti-inflammatory agent which greatly enhance the anti-cancer properties of the Novel NOSH Aspirin making it highly effective in preventing and fighting cancer in experiments. The NOSH Aspirin was reported to be 100,000 times more potent than regular Aspirin against Cancer cell growth and did not damage normal cells.
Breast Cancer Feb. 23, 2012: In an exciting new study done at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mie University School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie, Japan, published in the Journal Breast Cancer in partnership with The Japanese Breast Cancer Society found Thrombin-inhibitor Argatroban to inhibit Bone Metastasis of Breast Cancer cells via down regulation of Tissue Factor (TF) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF).
The team of Researchers injected MDA 231 Breast Cancer cells, treated with Thrombin, in the Mice hearts and compared the Test group that was given Argatroban intraperitonially for 28 days with the Control group that received saline and found the number of Bone Metastasis in the Argatroban group to be significantly lower than the saline group (p < 0.05). Further Reading and Sources: Link 1 Link 2 Thank you for updating your Medical Knowledge at Online Health Expert. Sincerely, Dr. Harish Malik.
Online Health ExpertDr. Harish Malik in his Feb. 7th, 2012 Updates to His Revolutionary, Global and Free "Move Movement" has linked (all studies have been linked to PubMed articles) various Epidemiological Studies from across the globe that show Increased Physical Activity (PA) has a Very Strong Potential in the Primary Prevention of Several cancers including Colon Cancer, Endometrial Cancer, Breast Cancer, Lung Cancer, Pancreatic Cancer and Gastric Cancer.
Online Health Expert News Report: According to the results of a 2 year study done on 101 volunteers 58 -99 years old, published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine (January, 2012), Dr. Cay Anderson-Hanley, Assistant Professor at Union College, New York, found that Virtual reality enhanced interactive exercise (Cybercyclists) yielded greater cognitive benefit and perhaps added greater protection (23% reduction in progression to MCI) against mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to traditional exercise.
Exercise could be linked to cognitive function via the increase in the blood levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Growth Factor (BDNF).
Online Health Expert Medical News Report: Weight Control in Obese Individuals Linked to Brain Changes due to Obesity.
Previously, an Australian study had shown that Rebound weight gain after dieting results from a homeostatic interplay of changes in weight regulating hormones.
Now, a new study reported in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, Dr. Michael W. Schwartz, professor of medicine at the University of Washington are reporting how rodents and humans with diet-induced obesity have structural changes in their hypothalamus, an area in the brain, which controls body weight among many other functions. Body weight is regulated by a rather complex set of interactions between hormones and brain cells (neurons). There is a growing belief among researchers that these interactions, in most obese people, "conspire" to prevent long-term weight loss, and the underlying mechanisms are increasingly investigated by neuroendocrinologists.
Dr. Schwartz told the press:
"To explain a biologically elevated body weight 'set-point', investigators in the field have speculated about the existence of fundamental changes to brain neurocircuits that control energy balance. Our findings are the first to offer direct evidence of such a structural change, and they include evidence in humans as well as in mice and rats."
In a second study published in the same issue of the journal, another team of researchers, led by Dr. Jeffrey Flier, of Harvard Medical School, Boston, reported that turnover of nerve cells in the hypothalamus of mice is inhibited by obesity, adding further weight to the argument that physiology, rather than lapsing back to old eating habits, could be the reason for weight regain following a period of successful weight loss in obese people.
Online Health Expert Medical News Report: A review of 14 studies published in the January, 2012 issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine involving children between Ages of six and eighteen found Strong and Positive Relationship between Physical Activity and Academic Performance.
The researchers noted that the increased oxygen and blood flow to the brain that accompanies exercise might be the reason behind their improved classroom performance.
Online Health Expert Medical News Report: In a study published in the Jan. 4, 2012 issue of JAMA (Journal of American Medical Association), involving 25 healthy participants which were divided into 3 groups getting a low-protein, high-protein, and a normal-protein diet with equal calories (all of them received extra 1000 calories), the researchers found that the total calorie intake, regardless of the nutritional source of calories, determines the amount of fat accumulation in their bodies.
These findings suggest that the current Obesity epidemic may be worse than is currently understood as those with lower body weight may have undetected layers of fat that can harm their health.
Online Health ExpertObesity and Dieting News Flash: An Interesting study done by Australian Doctors involving 50 overweight or obese patients without diabetes in a 10-week weight loss dieting program and published in the New England Journal of Medicine (October, 2011) showed elevated levels of hormones linked with hunger and obesity (ghrelin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and pancreatic polypeptide) and decreased levels of appetite suppressing hormones (leptin, peptide YY, cholecystokinin, insulin and amylin) compared to baseline levels over a period of one year after weight loss resulting from Dieting, suggesting that hormones result in the quick and high weight regain after dieting induced weight loss.
Anyone who has tried dieting and successfully lost weight as a result of it knows it is usually followed by a rebound weigh regain. This study shows that this weight regain is not merely a result of lack of willpower on their part, but is a result of several changes in the levels of homeostatic hormones linked with obesity. It clearly shows that the human body fights the lowering in body weight by quickly bringing the weight back with a rebound!
This understanding and long term means and strategies to counteract these homeostatic changes may hold the key to sustained weight loss by preventing rebound weight gain after a successful dieting program.
Online Health Expert urges "You" to share this story to help fight the rapidly growing Obesity epidemic.
Online Health Expert Medical News Report: According to an article published in the journal Blood, November 10, 2011 issue, for the very first time in the history of Blood Transfusion Medicine, when the American Red Cross had declared a nationwide shortage of Blood, scientists in France have been able to successfully transfuse 10 homogenized fully functional and mature Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC) derived in-vitro cultured Red Blood Cells (cRBCs) in a Human subject and showed them to be at par in quality and functionality with the natural RBCs.
Although, we are not yet technologically advanced enough to go for full scale quick and mass production of cRBCs for clinical use, this advancement promises a life saving leap in our capabilities very soon!
In the video below you will see Dr. Anthony Atala, Head of Regenerative Medicine at Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine at Wake Forest School of Medicine at Wake Forest University, NC at TED conference in Mar. 2011printing a human kidney on stage using a 3D organ printer. The Kidney is not ready to be really transplanted just yet. In a few years this technology which uses bio-compatible scaffolding (thermo-reversible gel) and human cells either differentiated from stem cells belonging to the patient or healthy organ cells from the patient's organ cultured outside the body will be used instead of ink in 3D printers and will actually print out the needed organ layer by layer. This will eliminate the need to wait for an organ donor and any risk or organ rejection after transplantation surgery. This will also eliminate the need for any immune suppression.
Online Health Expert Medical News Flash: According to a study done by Javaid Newman, PhD and colleagues at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway and published in the December 21, 2001 issue of JAMA, an increase in the resting heart rate (RHR) over a 10-year period had an increased risk of death from all causes and from ischemic heart disease (IHD). The study enrolled 30,000 healthy men and women who were followed for a period of 12 years.
The researchers found that compared with participants with a RHR of less than 70
bpm at both measurements (10 years apart), participants with a RHR of less than 70
bpm at the first measurement but greater than 85 bpm at the second
measurement had a 90 percent increased risk of death from IHD. Participants with
RHRs between 70-85 bpm at the first measurement and greater than 85
bpm at the second measurement had an 80 percent increased risk.
There is already some preexisting evidence that a high RHR is associated with increased cardiovascular disease and death in the general population, independent of conventional risk factors like age, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, alcohol intake, physical inactivity etc. But this was the first time a study was done to show how the increase in the RHR over a period of time independently impacts death from all causes and IHD. A previous study involving 129,135 postmenopausal women done in 2009 was able to establish RHR as an independent predictor for coronary events in women. Women with high RHR (more than 76 bpm) were significantly more likely to suffer a coronary event compared to women with lowest RHR ( 62 bpm or less). This correlation was strongest in the ages 50-64 years and less strong for women 65 years or over. There have been similar previous studies showing the direct correlation between high RHR and increased coronary events among men.
These studies including the one done by Dr. Newman further support for the hypothesis that RHR may be an important prognostic
marker for IHD and total mortality. Information on RHR and its time-related
changes which are so simple to perform and pretty easy to obtain and follow-up and may be useful in identifying
asymptomatic healthy people who could benefit from measures of primary prevention to reduce coronary events and all cause mortality and promote longevity through timely interventions.
More research needs to be done how the results from this study can be extrapolated to sick individuals and whether or not decreasing RHR will result in a decrease in all cause mortality.
This is yet another study along with many others which shows the importance of low RHR and keeping it low over time. An easy way to achieve it is to join Online Health Expert's Free and revolutionary "Move Movement". I encourage everyone to learn more and live a longer and healthier life.
Online Health Expert Medical News Flash: According to an Interesting study published in the journal PLoS One done on 35 experienced Physicians using 64 virtual case studies during training and 64 virtual patients in the testing phase and Functional MRI scans of their brains to elucidate their decision making process, the research team led by Dr. Jonathan Downar, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine in Ontario, Canada showed that Doctors who learned mainly from their successes showed low performance and a tended to make sub-optimal decision making compared to their high performing colleagues who learned equally from their mistakes (failures) and successes (positive outcomes).
High performing Doctors' brains achieve better outcomes by attending to informative failures during training rather than chasing the reward value of successes.
This finding, labeled as confirmation bias and success chasing was shown to hinder associative learning which together produced or solidified the false beliefs in low performing physicians in this study.
This leads us to believe that disconfirmation learning might be more beneficial in teaching Medical students and Residents so that they will not become success chasers and would be able to learn from their mistakes in the simulated clinical case scenarios and would be worthwhile to incorporate as a part of their training to improve patient outcomes. Further testing needs to be done to find direct evidence to support this type of training and its benefits.
Online Health Expert recommends learning more from one's failures rather than successes alone. It is the key to avoid spurious learning and is true for everyone and not only Doctors.
As many humans there are, as many realities. In fact just like the finger prints, DNA prints (exception of identical twins), each of us have a unique Brain print with no exceptions as no two humans can be present at one place simultaneously and experience the same reality.
Our Brain along with the spinal cord (CNS -Central Nervous System) and nerves (PNS -Peripheral Nervous System which includes the ANS ie., Autonomic Nervous System and SNS ie., Somatic Nervous System) with the help of various sensory organs (special ones - Eyes for 3D color sight/vision, Nose for Olfaction/smell, Ears - Audition/Hearing and Equilibrium/Balance and acceleration, Tongue - Gustation/Taste and General ones - like the Touch (skin and viscera), Pressure, Vibration, Proprioception, Pain, and Temperature (hot and cold) senses the presence of energy and matter(within the human capability/limitations) and based on prior and real time knowledge base generates a sense of self and the surroundings - which we call our reality.
As the design is almost the same for all of us the our knowledge and experiences are the main confounding factors in the creation of our realities. That being said knowledge and experience are very powerful tools that can change our reality.
Our Brain does a marvelous job at Capturing and Deleting information/data almost simultaneously to keep us aware of our surroundings and self, and that is what we perceive to be "Real" and gives us a sense of "Present" time or "Real" time.
Our Brains possess a "very powerful filtering mechanism", meaning that humann brain is designed to "Forget" or "Delete" information/data and NOT to "Remember" it as most of you might think. Had it not been so we would be unable to move on and all information would pile up very quickly and confuse us and we would not be able to sense ourselves or our surroundings in real time as the past would be superimposed on it. There would be no "Reality" and no distinction between past, present and future and thus no sense of "Time".
That is not to say that Our Brains do not have the capabilities to remember concepts, ideas, information, and things from the past. It surely does in the various forms of "Memory": Firstly, The Real Time Memory - lasting a few milliseconds or less (when we are moving fast) providing us enough time to create and comprehend realityand reflexly respond to its changes. It is then quickly erased or deleted as the brain is constantly bombarded with new information/data. This type of memory does not make any physical changes in our brain, it's purely electrochemical in nature. The Brain possesses the power to "scoop out" certain data - "filtering mechanism" - and push it back into short term/ long term memory (awake/sleeping memory). What it filters is "very unique" to each one of us and to each circumstance and is dependent upon an intricate balance between our knowledge base and prior experiences in those circumstances and our human body's basic anatomic and physiologic needs to stay safe and reproduce (survival instincts). It is also in part determined by our rewarding experiences (interests) and previous punishments (fears) which we can label as our "Motivating" factors and how an interplay of those relates to our present. What is very-very interesting about this type of memory is that our brain can speed up tremendously to "Slow Down Time" in life threatening situations when our bodies pump up our brain with "Adrenaline". This is much like the slow motion effect on a "film" when the projector rolls faster. This happens to provide us more time to better assess our surroundings, and to link it to our past knowledge and experiences to come up with a move to save ourselves (our survival instinct!).
Another important aspect of our survival instinct, which the "Magicians" have exploited for thousands of years to create "Illusions" is that we are easily distractable especially when it comes to our sense of Sight/Vision. In order to keep us safe, we involuntarily focus our attention on "Moving objects" as they could be dangerous to us. Magicians have been using these movements and sound effects to perform their tricks as we easily and involuntarily focus our attention on those and not on what they don't want us to see and they very easily get away with it.
Secondly, we have the Short-term memory which lasts from a few seconds to a few minutes and helps us in assessment of the present circumstances including our reflex responses and modulate them in the future as we learn and somewhat plan the very near future which changes into our present as the very near past gets deleted. This also does not make much physical changes in our brain. Some of this information, both reflexly and voluntarily can be pushed back further into long term memory based on its "repetitive utilization", "active recall" and on our levels of "Motivation".
Thirdly, we possess a Long-term memory (often life long) which as a result of repetitious use for example our Name, Spouse's name, name of our close family members, relatives and friends, own phone number, Social Security Number or some form of ID number, name of our Street, Apartment or House number etc. It is also mostly the one related to our parenting, schooling, interests, occupation, religion, voluntary active recall and our "Motivation" - these are things we cannot afford to forget or simply love too much! This type of memory has been shown to make physical changes like hypertrophy (increase in size) of certain brain areas based of excessive utilization and has been consistently shown to exist in various occupations.
Recent studies on sleep physiology have hinted that during sleep, we also possess these three different types of memories but are stored in separate regions of the brain and do interact and affect our reality, learning, behavior, and dreams.
Thus, our Memories are there to assist us with our future by analysis of the past and present to create a "Knowledge Base" which constantly changes our "Reality".
My Revolutionary Global "Move Movement" to help prevent/fight disease and promote positive health is a testimony to my dedication to improve Global Health and cut Global Medical and Health costs.
The addition of "Free Membership" to Online Health Expert provides a platform where Medical professionals as well as people can exchange ideas, knowledge and skills to improve their health and spread Health awareness and come together as a Global Family of Health Protectors and Promoters.
Above all the creation of "Synthetic Life" has changed my definition of Life - Life forms are software (genes) driven dynamic organic machines (body) - and our ability to literally edit this software on a computer and to create "New Life forms" is amazing new promising technology that has already started revolutionizing our world at all levels.
My Free Links for "Clinical Skills Videos", "Allied Health care Clinical Skills Videos" and "Symptom Checkers" when properly utilized will make Medical and Health care Safer and More Cost Effective in the time of "Global Economic Crisis" and growing disconnect between Health care Providers and Patients due to our increasing reliance on technology in diagnosing and treating patients and the diminishing and declining utilization of Clinical Skills.
“To teach is to touch a life forever”. Keeping this in mind, I believe that every Medical Educator must be highly motivated, must be knowledgeable, skilled and a thorough professional who must strive for perfection.
Please Join Online Health Expert today for FREE! to Learn and to Teach and Improve Global Health and Medical Education through your contribution today. .
"It's Never Too Late to improve and nobody is perfect and Health care needs Major Changes NOW!" Let’s Start This Change by Joining Online Health Expert and Sharing our Wealth of knowledge.
Online Health Expert Medical News Flash: Soon, losing weight might mean chewing a stick of gum after eating a well balanced meal to suppress your appetite.
In an exciting new study, a chemist at Syracuse University, Robert Doyle and his team, demonstrated, for the first time, that a critical hormone PYY (Peptide YY) which is a short (36-amino acid)proteinreleased by cells in the ileum and colon in response to feeding.that helps people feel "full" after eating can be delivered into the bloodstream orally.
Doyle's team is working on incorporating B12-PYY in chewing gum or oral tablets in trials and hoping to deliver PYY without being degraded in the GI system to cause appetite suppression in obese individuals.
If they will be successful, PYY-laced gum would be a natural way to help people lose weight in the near future.
Robert Doyle's study was published online in the American Chemical Society'sJournal of Medicinal Chemistry. He collaborated on the study with researchers from Murdoch University in Australia.
Online Health Expert Medical News Flash: Previous
epidemiological association of decreased Breast cancer in women on long
term Metformin therapy for type 2 Diabetes Mellitus was
experimentally shown to be true by researchers from Michigan State University
and their colleagues from Seoul University.
dishes (Link 1), these researchers grew miniature human breast tumors, or
mammospheres, that activated a certain stem cell gene (Oct4A). Then the
mammospheres were exposed to natural estrogen - a known growth factor and
potential breast tumor promoter - and man-made chemicals that are known to
promote tumors or disrupt the endocrine system.
They found that
estrogen and the chemicals caused the mammospheres to increase in numbers and
size. However, when metformin was added, the numbers and size of the
mammospheres were dramatically reduced. While each of the chemicals enhanced
growth by different means, metformin seemed to be able to inhibit their
stimulated growth in all cases.
study done last year at the National Cancer Institute regarding metformin and
Lung cancer prevention in mice (Link 2) when the researchers administered
metformin to mice by injection, the drug levels were higher and the anticancer
effects were even stronger—the drug reduced lung tumors by 72 percent compared
with no treatment. Although this method of administration is not feasible for
cancer prevention in humans, analogs of metformin that are more potent may well
be more effective than the drug itself, Dr. Dennis noted. With any
chemopreventive agent, however, minimal toxicity is critical, and metformin was
well tolerated in the mice. In fact, the livers of the treated mice not only
showed no signs of toxicity, but they actually appeared healthier than those of
research will be done to see if metformin can reduce the risk of Pancreatic and
Liver cancers as well.
Marc Ostermeier’s team made this novel weapon, cancer-fighting protein “switch”, by fusing together two different proteins and successfully tested it on human colon and breast cancer cells. One protein detects a marker that cancer cells produce. The other protein, derived from yeast, can turn an inactive prodrug (drug that is in its inactive form) into a cancer-cell killer (active chemotherapy drug). “When the first part of the switch detects cancer, it tells its partner to activate the chemotherapy drug, destroying the cell,” Ostermeier said.
Normal healthy cells will also receive the prodrug but would not be able to convert it to active chemotherapy drug and thus would be spared.
Animal testing is expected to start within a year.
A team of scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research in Bad Nauheim and the Schüchtermann Klinik in Bad Rothenfelde have identified the protein Oncostatin M which fulfils a central task in the dedifferentiation (reversal) process by stimulating the regression of individual heart muscle cells into their precursor cells after Myocardial Infarction and Cardiomyopathy that limits the fatal consequences.
They now plan to improve the self-healing powers of the heart with the help of this protein and are looking for the correct time frame to use it in humans after such insults so as to minimize its adverse effects.
Ectrodactyly (SHFM or ECC) is a relatively rare (1/90,000 births) congenital genetic (long arm of chromosome7; 7q22 - Arg304 of p63 gene is most commonly seen defect) birth defect with limb malformation involving the central rays of the autopod and presenting with syndactyly, median clefts of the hands and feet and aplasia/or hypoplasia of the phalanges, metacarpals and metatarsals.
It can be seen either with hand and/or feet deformities (the middle finger or middle toe is missing - giving them the appearance of a Lobster claw) without any other malformations or as a ECC (Ectodermal Dysplasia-Clefting) Syndrome in which a combination of other anomalies may be seen - including - tibial aplasia, cranio-facial defects, and genitourinary abnormalities. Sometimes sensorineural hearing loss is also seen.
It is a genetic disorder which in the autosomal dominant (gene on chromosome 7) disorder is characterized by (SHFM) Split-Hand/Split-Foot Malformation; urogenital defects; skin, hair, teeth, and nail anomalies; nasolacrymal anomalies and cleft palate with or without cleft lip. Hydronephrosis is not seen prominently in ECC. Inter- and intrafamilial expression in seen to be highly variable. In mildly affected patients, SHFM may be limited to syndactyly and several instances of non-penetrance have been documented. Clinical variability not only exists between patients, but also between limbs of a single individual. There are some case reports of autosomal recessive inheritance.
Currently there are several treatments, which can normalize the appearance of the hands, yet they will not function precisely the same way as regularly formed hands. The prognosis for the non-syndromic Ectrodactyly is very good and that of the ECC syndrome depends on the organs involved and the penetrance level. Some people with ectrodactyly use prosthetic hands to avoid the rude stares of others. Early physical and occupational therapy can help those with ectrodactyly adapt, and learn to write, pick things up, and be fully functional.
According to a study published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, awidely used breast cancer test (oncotype DX) may not be accurate in identifying the HER2 gene that is critical in determining if the patient recieves Herceptin (trastuzumab) which may be life saving in HER2 positive Breast cancer patients.
According to Dr. Lori J. Goldstein, director of Breast Evaluation Center at Fox Chase cancer Center in Philadelphia, the Oncotype DX test, which actually measures 21 different genes, was not designed to specifically test for HER2 and is not intended as a substitute for two other widely used and accepted lab tests.
The Inform Dual ISH test is manufactured by Ventana Medical Systems of Tucson, Arizona was recently approved by the FDA to test for HER2 gene. It has a 96% sensitivity in identifying HER2-positive tumor samples and 92.3% specificity in ruling out HER2 positivity in tumor samples that had the normal number of copies of the HER2 gene. Patients with more than the normal number of copies of the HER2 gene are considered candidates for trastuzumab therapy, whereas those with the normal number are not.